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二十四節気 ("24 Sekki" or 24 Solar Terms)

"24 Sekki" or 24 Solar Terms are traditional ways of expressing seasons in Japan and China. Each term is defined by the ecliptic longitude of the Sun (λ). For example, "Shunbun" is the time when the longitude of the Sun becomes 0°, and "Shuubun" is when the longitude becomes 180°.
In luni-solar calendar era, 24 Solar Terms were also necessary for deciding when to insert leap month. A year has four seasons, and each season has 3 "Setsu" and 3 "Chuu" arranged alternately.

Terms for spring

立春 "Risshun"1st "Setsu"315° Beginning of Spring; Coldest days are almost over and we can feel the sign of spring.
雨水 "Usui"1st "Chuu"330° Rain Water; It becomes warmer. Snow and ice start melting and snow becomes rain.
啓蟄 "Keichitsu"2nd "Setsu"345° Insects Awakening; Insects come out of hibernation.
春分 "Shunbun"2nd "Chuu" Spring Equinox or Vernal Equinox; Length of day and night becomes nearly equal.
清明 "Seimei"3rd "Setsu"15° Fresh Green; Everything looks fresh and pure.
穀雨 "Kokuu"3rd "Chuu"30° Grain Rain; Spring rain showers for grains.

Terms for summer

立夏 "Rikka"4th "Setsu"45° Beginning of Summer; Times when we can feel the sign of summer
小満 "Shouman"4th "Chuu"60° Lesser Fullness; Everything grows.
芒種 "Boushu"5th "Setsu"75° Grain in Ear; Times to plant grains
夏至 "Geshi"5th "Chuu"90° Summer Solstice; Length of day becomes longest.
小暑 "Shousho"6th "Setsu"105° Lesser Heat; Times when the rainy season ends and it becomes hot.
大暑 "Taisho"6th "Chuu"120° Greater Heat; Hottest days

Terms for autumn

立秋 "Risshuu"7th "Setsu"135° Beginning of Autumn; Times when we can feel the sign of autumn
処暑 "Shosho"7th "Chuu"150° End of Heat; Times when we feel less heat
白露 "Hakuro"8th "Setsu"165° White Dew; White dew stays on the grass.
秋分 "Shuubun"8th "Chuu"180° Autumnal Equinox; Length of day and night becomes nearly equal.
寒露 "Kanro"9th "Setsu"195° Cold Dew; Cold dews drops on wild grasses.
霜降 "Soukou"9th "Chuu"210° First Frost; Times when frost falls

Terms for winter

立冬 "Rittou"10th "Setsu"225° Beginning of Winter; Times when we can feel the sign of winter
小雪 "Shousetsu"10th "Chuu"240° Light Snow; Chilly Season. Rain becomes snow.
大雪 "Taisetsu"11th "Setsu"255° Heavy Snow; Snow starts falling.
冬至 "Touji"11th "Chuu"270° Winter Solstice; Length of day becomes shortest.
小寒 "Shoukan"12th "Setsu"285° Lesser Cold; Start of cold season
大寒 "Daikan"12th "Chuu"300° Greater Cold; Coldest days

雑節 ("Zassetsu" or Supplementary Solar Terms)

"Zassetsu" or Supplementary Solar Terms are additional terms for seasons that complement 24 Solar Terms. "Doyou" and "Higan" shows the start day of "Doyou" and "Higan" period, respectively.

Doyou Setsubun Higan 88 Ya Nyuubai Hangeshou 210 Ka
土用 "Doyou"27°, 117°, 207°, 297° In the old days, "Doyou" is the 18 day period before "Risshun", "Rikka", "Risshuu", and "Rittou".
節分 "Setsubun"- The border of seasons. Originally, we had 4 "Setsubun" for each season, but only spring "Setsubun" remains nowadays. The next day of "Setsubun" is "Risshun".
彼岸 "Higan"- "Higan" is the 7 day period from 3 days before "Shunbun" (or "Shuubun") to 3 days after "Shunbun" (or "Shuubun"). 1st day of "Higan" is called "Higan no Iri", and the last day of "Higan" is called "Ake".
八十八夜 "88 Ya"- The 88th day from "Risshun". Times when frost is fewer.
入梅 "Nyuubai"80° In the old days, "Mizunoe" after "Boushu". Times when rainy season comes.
半夏生 "Hangeshou"100° In the old days, it was the 10th day from "Geshi".
二百十日 "210 Ka"- The 210th day from "Risshun".